This bibliography of secondary sources seeks to provide students and teachers with a basic list of the most recent and useful secondary sources on the villa as a landscape type as well as the individual featured sites. It is by no means comprehensive and should be viewed as a starting point for further research.

General Secondary Sources

Ackerman, James S. The Villa: Form and Ideology of Country Houses. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Acton, Harold. The Villas of Tuscany. 1973. Reprint, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1987.

Alberti, Leon Battista. De Re Aedificatoria. Translated by Joseph Rywert with Neil Leach and Robert Tavernor. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1988.

Barsali, Isa Belli. Ville Di Roma, 2nd ed. Milan: Rusconi, 1983.

Barsali, Isa Belli and Maria Grazia Branchetti. Ville Della Campagna Romana. Milan: Rusconi, 1981.

Benes, Mirka and Diane Harris. Villas and Gardens in Early Modern Italy and France. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Caro Stefano de. ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea at Oplontis: A Preliminary Report,’ Ancient Roman Villa Gardens. Washington DC.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1987.

Chatfield, Judith. A Tour of Italian Gardens. New York: Rizzoli, 1988.

Coffin, David R. Gardens and Gardening in Papal Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Coffin, David R. The Villa in the Life of Renaissance Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Coffin, David R., ed. The Italian Garden. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1972.

Colonna, Francesco. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili: The Strife of Love in a Dream. Trans. Joscelyn Godwin. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1999.

Dennis, Michael. Court & Garden: From the French Hôtel to the City of Modern Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

Clarke, Ethne. The Gardens of Tuscany. New York : Rizzoli, 1990.

Eustis, Elizabeth. European Pleasure Gardens: Rare Books and Prints of Historic Landscape Design from the Elizabeth K. Reilley Collection. New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 2003.

Goode, Patrick and Michael Lancaster, eds. The Oxford Companion to Gardens. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Hunt, John Dixon, ed. The Italian Garden: Art, Design and Culture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Jashemski, Wilhelmina. “Recently Excavated Gardens and Cultivated Land of the Villas at Boscoreale and Oplontis,” in Ancient Roman Villa Gardens, Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1987.

Lazzaro, Claudia. The Italian Renaissance Garden. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

MacDougall, Elizabeth B., ed. Fons Sapientiae: Renaissance Garden Fountains. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1978.

Masson, Georgina. Italian Gardens. 1961. Rev. ed. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1987.

Piccione, Massimo, ed. Gardens of Tuscany. Florence: Edifir, 2001.

Platt, Charles A. Italian Gardens. Portland, OR: Sagapress/Timber Press, 1993.

Robertson, Ian. Paris and Versailles. London: Black, 1992.

Rogers, Elizabeth Barlow. Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History. New York: Abrams, 2001.

Schuyler, David. Apostle of Taste: Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815–1852. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Shepherd, J.C. and G.A. Jellicoe. Italian Gardens of the Renaissance. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993.

Tatum, George B., and Elisabeth Blair MacDougall , eds. Prophet with Honor: The Career of Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815–1852. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1989.

Triggs, H. Inigo. The Art of Garden Design in Italy. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1906.

van der Ree, Paul, Gerrit Smienk, and Clemens Steenbergen. Italian Villas and Gardens. Amsterdam: Thoth, 1992.

Wharton, Edith. Italian Villas and Their Gardens. New York: Da Capo, 1976.

Wolfflin, Heinrich. “The Villa and the Garden,” in Renaissance and Baroque. Trans. Katharine Simon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1966.

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Piero de’ Crescenzi

Bauman, Johanna, “Tradition and Transformation: The Pleasure Garden in Piero de’ Crescenzi’s ‘Liber ruralium commodorum.'”Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes 22 (Summer 2002), pp. 99-141.

Dutch Villas and Country Houses

Hunt, John Dixon, Editor. The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1990.

Sellers, Vanessa Bezemer. Courtly Gardens in Holland. Amsterdam: Architectura and Natura Press, 2001.

Frascati Villas

Ehrlich, Tracy L. Landscape and Identity in Early Modern Rome: Villa Culture at Frascati in the Borghese Era. New York: Cambridge University Press and the American Academy in Rome, 2002.


Karson, Robin. The Muses of Gwinn: Art and Nature in a Garden Designed by Warren H. Manning, Charles A. Platt & Ellen Biddle Shipman. Sagaponack, N.Y.: Sagapress, 1995.


Bigler, Robert R. Schloss Hellbrunn: Wunderkammer der Gartenarchitektur. Vienna: Bölaus Verlag, 1996.

Horace’s Villa

Frischer, Bernard D. and Iain Gordon Brown, eds. Allan Ramsay and the Search for Horace’s Villa. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001.

Hadrian’s Villa

MacDonald, William Lloyd and John Pinto. Hadrian’s Villa and Its Legacy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Lombard Villas

Harris, Dianne. The Nature of Authority: Villa Culture, Landscape, and Representation in Eighteenth-Century Lombardy. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.

Villa Borghese

Campitelli, Alberta. Villa Borghese. Milan: Skira, 2003.

—. Villa Borghese: da Giardino del Principe a Parco dei Romani. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato Libreria dello Stato, 2003.

Villa Doria-Pamphili

Benocci, Carla. Villa Doria Pamphili. Milan: Electa, 1988.

Villa d’Este

Coffin, David R. The Villa d’Este at Tivoli. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1960.

Villa Gamberaia

Osmond, Patricia, ed. “Villa Gamberaia: Sources and Interpretations,” in Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes. Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 2002 (Special issue).

Osmond, Patricia, ed. Revisiting the Gamberaia: An Anthology of Essays on Villa Gamberaia. Florence: Centro Di della Edifimi, 2004.

Villa Lante

Barth, Fritz. Die Villa Lante in Bagnaia. Stuttgart, Germany: Axel Menges, 2001.

Villa Madama

Dewex, Guy. Villa Madama: A Memoir Relating to Raphael’s Project. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993.

Villa Medici, Rome

Chastel, André, Editor. La Villa Médicis. 3 Volumes. Rome: Académie de France à Rome: Ecole Française de Rome, 1989–1991.

Villa Pia

Smith, Graham. The Casino of Pius IV. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Villas of the Veneto

Ackerman, James. S. Palladio. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1966.

Constant, Caroline. Palladio Guide of 1988. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1985.

Cosgrove, Denis. The Palladian Landscape: Geographical Change and its Cultural Representations in Sixteenth-Century Italy. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 1993.

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Robert Castell, Villas of the Ancients Illustrated, 1759

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